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ⓘ Barabara ya hariri



Barabara ya hariri
                                     

ⓘ Barabara ya hariri

Barabara ya hariri ilikuwa njia muhimu ya biashara kati ya China kwa upande mmoja na Afrika Mashariki, Mashariki ya Kati halafu Ulaya kwa upande mwingine. Biashara hiyo iliendelea tangu karne za kabla ya Kristo.

Jina la "barabara ya hariri" limetokana na hariri ambayo kwa muda mrefu ilitengenezwa katika China pekee ikawa kati ya bidhaa zilizotafutwa sana duniani kwa bei ya juu.

Mnamo Juni 2014, UNESCO imetangaza sehemu Changan-Tianshan ya barabara hiyo kuwa mahali pa Urithi wa Dunia.

                                     

1. Mtandao wa njia mbalimbali zilizopita Asia ya Kati

Barabara ya hariri haikuwa njia moja tu bali jumla ya njia za misafara kati ya China na nchi za Magharibi zilizopita katika Asia ya Kati.

Kulikuwa na njia za kando, hasa baharini, kati ya China na Uhindi halafu kutoka Uhindi hadi Irak au Misri. Njia za bahari zilikuwa muhimu hasa kama njia ya nchi kavu ilikatika wakati wa vita au ukosefu wa usalama. Kuna vipindi vichache ambako eneo lote la barabara ya hariri lilikuwa na usalama, hasa wakati wa utawala wa Wamongolia. Vinginevyo safari zilikuwa za hatari zikachukua muda mrefu. Bidhaa zilipita mikononi mwa wanafanyabiashara mbalimbali zikaongezewa bei njiani.

                                     

2. Njia ya bidhaa, watu na mawazo

Si bidhaa tu ndizo zilizosafiri kwenye barabara ya hariri. Wasafiri, sanaa, mawazo, mafundisho, dini na magonjwa walipita pia kwa njia hiyo.

Teknolojia kama za kutengenezwa kwa karatasi au kuchapishwa kwa vitabu zilipita njia hiyo kutoka China hadi Asia ya Magharibi na kutoka huko hadi Ulaya.

Uenezaji wa Ubuddha kwenda Mongolia na China katika karne ya 1 BK, wa Ukristo kufika China katika karne ya 3 na wa Uislamu kuelekea mashariki katika karne ya 8 ulifuata barabara hii.

                                     

3. Njia ya magonjwa

Magonjwa yalipita njia hiyohiyo. Kwa mfano tauni ilianza katika miaka ya 1330 katika China kwenye jimbo la Yunnan. Ugonjwa huu unategemea viroboto kama kituo cha virusi vyake. Farasi za jeshi la Mongolia na biashara ya ngozi ilipeleka viroboto wale hadi Bahari Nyeusi. Mwaka 1348 wafanyabiashara Waitalia kutoka Bahari Nyeusi waliingiza ugonjwa Ulaya yenyewe ulikoua robo ya wakazi wote.

                                     

4. Barabara mpya ya hariri

Tangu mwaka 2013 serikali ya China imetangaza mpango wa "barabara mpya ya hariri" unaolenga kuimarisha na kupanua ushirikiano wa China, Asia ya Kati, Asia ya Magharibi na Ulaya, pamoja na sehemu za Afrika. Jina rasmi kwa Kiingereza ni Belt and Road Initiative au Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road ".

Kwa kushirikiana na nchi za maeneo hayo China imeanza kujenga au kupanua barabara na njia za reli. Kati ya miradi mingi iliyoanzishwa iko njia ya reli inayounganisha China ya magharibi na Kazakhstan na kuendelea hadi Urusi na Ulaya ya Magharibi kwa umbali wa takriban kilomita 12.000 "New Eurasian Land Bridge". Sehemu nyingine ni Ushoroba wa Kiuchumi wa China na Pakistan "China–Pakistan Economic Corridor" ambako barabara kuu na reli zinaunganisha China ya Magharibi na bandari mpya ya Gwadar kwenye Bahari Hindi. Bandari hii ilijengwa pia na makampuni ya China.

                                     

5. Kujisomea

  • Thubron, C., The Silk Road to China Hamlyn, 1989
  • Li et al. "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age". BMC Biology 2010, 8:15.
  • de la Vaissière, E., Sogdian Traders. A History, Leiden, Brill, 2005, Hardback ISBN 90-04-14252-5 Brill Publishers, French version ISBN 2-85757-064-3 on
  • Watt, James C.Y. & Wardwell, Anne E. 1997. When silk was gold: Central Asian and Chinese textiles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870998250.
  • Liu, Xinru, and Shaffer, Lynda Norene. 2007. Connections Across Eurasia: Transportation, Communication, and Cultural Exchange on the Silk Roads. McGraw Hill, New York. ISBN 978-0-07-284351-4.
  • Boulnois, Luce. Silk Road: Monks, Warriors and Merchants on the Silk Road. Odyssey Publications, 2005. ISBN 962-217-720-4
  • Polo, Marco, Il Milione.
  • Weber, Olivier, Eternal Afghanistan photographies of Reza, Unesco-Le Chêne, 2002
  • Larsen, Jeanne. Silk Road: A Novel of Eighth-Century China. 1989; reprinted 2009
  • Yap, Joseph P. Wars With the Xiongnu – A Translation From Zizhi Tongjian. AuthorHouse 2009 ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4
  • Omrani, Bijan. Asia Overland: Tales of Travel on the Trans-Siberian and Silk Road Odyssey Publications, 2010 ISBN 962-217-811-1
  • Bulliet, Richard W. 1975. The Camel and the Wheel. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-09130-2.
  • Levy, Scott C. "Early Modern Central Asia in World History," History Compass Nov 2012 10#11 866–878, DOI:10.1111/hic3.12004
  • Kuzmina, E. E. The Prehistory of the Silk Road. 2008 Edited by Victor H. Mair. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 978-0-8122-4041-2
  • Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna 2011. Caravan to Lhasa: A Merchant of Kathmandu in Traditional Tibet. Kathmandu: Lijala & Tisa. ISBN 99946-58-91-3
  • Miller, Roy Andrew 1959: Accounts of Western Nations in the History of the Northern Chou Dynasty. University of California Press.
  • Hopkirk, Peter: The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia ; Kodansha International, New York, 1990, 1992.
  • Christian, David 2000. "Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History". Journal of World History University of Hawaii Press 2.1 Spring: 1.
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