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ⓘ Sosholojia




Sosholojia
                                     

ⓘ Sosholojia

Sosholojia ni fani ya sayansi inayochunguza mwenendo wa kijamii, yaani binadamu katika maisha ya jamii: unavyoanza, unayoendelea, unavyojipanga na unavyosababisha miundo.

Kwa maneno mengine, sosholojia inamsoma mtu katika mahusiano yake: mtu na mtu, mtu na watu kundi na hivyo huweza kugundua tabia zake mbalimbali.

Somo hilo linahusiana na masomo mengine, kama vile anthropolojia, historia, saikolojia na uchumi.

Ni mojawapo kati ya sayansi za jamii nayo inatumia mbinu tofauti za kutambua hali halisi, halafu inazichunguza kimpango.

                                     

1. Jina

Jina la fani hii linatokana na Kilatini "socius" yaani "mwenzi" na Kigiriki "λογία, logia" yaani "elimu" pamoja.

Aliyeunganisha kwa mara ya kwanza maneno hayo mwaka 1780 ni mwandishi Mfaransa Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès 1748–1836, lakini alichoandika kilichelewa kuchapwa. Mwaka 1838 alifanya vilevile Mfaransa mwingine, mwanafalsafa wa sayansi Auguste Comte 1798–1857. Comte used this term to describe a new way of looking at society.

                                     

2. Faida ya fani hii

Kujifunza sosholojia ni kujifunza kuangalia dunia kwa mapana zaidi, yaani kutoka nje ya mipaka ya tafsiri zetu tulizojiwekea kijuujuu. Ni kukubali changamoto ya kuchunguza upya yale yote tunayoyajua kwa maana za kawaida: matokeo ya uchunguzi huo pengine hupingana na kile tulichokidhani mwanzoni na hivyo kutuwezesha kuuona ukweli katika hali mpya.

Sosholojia hutusaidia kuelewa hali halisi ya jamii ili kuchangia urekebishaji au utengenezaji wa sera mpya. Hutusaidia pia kukuza ujuzi wetu wa jamii mbalimbali na wa mahusiano yetu kijamii, yakiwa mazuri au mabaya vilevile. Hutusaidia tena kuelewa jumuia zetu kubwa au ndogo kama watu wanaoishi pamoja wakifuata mila na desturi za aina moja na kuwa na lengo moja. Hutusaidia kuelewa aina mbalimbali za utamaduni ili kurahisisha ushirikiano.

                                     

3. Historia ya sosholojia

Pamoja na kwamba mizizi ya sosholojia inapatikana katika maandishi ya wanafalsafa wa Ugiriki Plato na Aristotle, somo hilo lilipata kujitegemea katika karne ya 19 likakua haraka katika karne ya 20.

Mababa wake ni hasa Auguste Comte 1798-1857 na Herbert Spencer 1820-1903.

Wengineo ni Karl Marx 1818-1883, Emile Durkheim 1858-1917 na Max Weber 1864-1920.

                                     

4. Viungo vya nje

Vyama vya taaluma hii
  • European Sociological Association ESA
  • German Sociological Association DGS
  • International Sociological Association ISA
  • British Sociological Association BSA
  • Canadian Association of French-speaking Sociologists and Anthropologists
  • Latin American Sociological Association ALAS Archived Januari 7, 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Association of Applied and Clinical Sociology AACS
  • Canadian Sociological Association CSA
  • Bangladesh Sociological Society BSS
  • Indian Sociological Society ISS
  • American Sociological Association ASA
  • International Institute of Sociology IIS
  • Association for Humanist Sociology AHS
  • French Sociological Association
  • Australian Sociological Association TASA
  • African Sociological Association AfSA Archived Julai 5, 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Sociological Association of Ireland SAI
  • Portuguese Sociological Association APS
  • South African Sociological Association SASA
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  • Sociology Today e-forum
  • SocioSite: Famous Sociologists Archived Septemba 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine. - Strong shoulders to stand on