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ⓘ Kleri




Kleri
                                     

ⓘ Kleri

Kleri ni kundi la watu wanaoongoza dini fulani. Jina linatokana na neno la Kigiriki "κλῆρος" - klēros, "bahati", "sudi" au also "urithi".

Katika madhehebu mengi ya Ukristo kleri ina daraja takatifu tatu: kuanzia juu ni uaskofu, upadri na ushemasi. Hata hivyo baadhi yao wanapewa pia majina mengine kulingana na huduma zao, kwa mfano: Papa, kardinali, monsinyori, abati, kanoni, arkimandrita n.k.

Katika Uislamu hakuna ukuhani, hivyo uongozi unategemea tu elimu ya dini: kuna mufti, imamu, ustadhi n.k.

                                     

1. Marejeo

  • Schwarzfuchs, Simon. A concise history of the rabbinate Blackwell, 1993, a standard scholarly history
  • Lewis, Bonnie Sue. Creating Christian Indians: Native Clergy in the Presbyterian Church University of Oklahoma Press, 2003
  • Osborne, Kenan B. Priesthood: A history of ordained ministry in the Roman Catholic Church Paulist Press, 1989, a standard scholarly history
  • Ferguson, Everett. The Early Church at Work and Worship: Volume 1: Ministry, Ordination, Covenant, and Canon Casemate Publishers, 2014
  • Bremer, Francis J. Shaping New Englands: Puritan Clergymen in Seventeenth-Century England and New England Twayne, 1994
  • Parry, Ken, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity John Wiley & Sons, 2010
  • Marshall, Peter. The Catholic Priesthood and the English Reformation Clarendon Press, 1994
  • Aston, Nigel. Religion and revolution in France, 1780-1804 CUA Press, 2000
  • Haig, Alan. The Victorian Clergy Routledge, 1984, in England
  • Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. Crown and clergy in colonial Mexico, 1759-1821: The crisis of ecclesiastical privilege Burns & Oates, 1968
  • Freeze, Gregory L. The Parish Clergy in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, Counter-Reform Princeton University Press, 1983
  • Holifield, E. Brooks. Gods ambassadors: a history of the Christian clergy in America Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2007, a standard scholarly history
  • Zucker, David J. American rabbis: Facts and fiction Jason Aronson, 1998
  • Sanneh, Lamin. "The origins of clericalism in West African Islam." The Journal of African History 17.01 1976: 49-72.
  • Dutt, Sukumar. Buddhist monks and monasteries of India London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1962
                                     

2. Viungo vya nje

  • Wlsessays.net, Scholarly articles on Christian Clergy from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library
  • University of the West Archived Julai 20, 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Buddhist M.Div.
  • Naropa University, Buddhist M.Div.