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ⓘ Njia ya bomba




Njia ya bomba
                                     

ⓘ Njia ya bomba

Njia ya bomba ni mfumo wa kusafirisha vimiminika kama mafuta ya petroli au gesi hadi umbali mkubwa kwa kutumia mabomba yaliyounganishwa. Kuna pia njia za bomba zinazosafirisha madini au makaa yaliyochanganywa na maji kwa kusudi hili. Matumizi mengine ni kwa ajili ya maji safi, maji taka, maziwa au bia.

                                     

1. Teknolojia

Njia hizo hutumia mabomba ya metali au ya plastiki. Mabomba hayo mara nyingi huwekwa katika mifereji na kufunikwa udongo. Kama ardhi ni ngumu au laini mno mabomba huwekwa juu ya ardhi. Kuna pia njia za bomba baharini.

Vimiminika husafirishwa kwa kutumia pampu; njia ndefu huwa na vituo vya pampu kila baada ya kilomita 100 hivi; umbali hutegemea kama njia ya bomba inapanda milima, inashuka chini au kuendelea tambarare.

Gesi hazihitaji pampu bali husukumwa kwa shinikizo. Mabomba ni ya feleji yaliyotengenezwa kwa umakini mkubwa ili kuepukana kabia mapengo yoyote. Njia ya bomba kwa gesi asilia huhitaji vituo vya kurudisha shinikizo kwenye njia yake.

                                     

2. Uchumi

Njia za bomba ni ghali, hata hivyo ni nafuu kusafirisha mafuta au gesi kwa njia hiyo ikiliganishwa na usafiri kwa barabara au reli.

Huko Marekani ilikadiriwa mwaka 2014 kuwa kiasi sanifu cha mafuta "barrel" kinagharamia dolar 5 kwa njia ya bomba lakini dolar 10-15 kwa njia ya reli.

Kuna njia za bomba zinazoendelea kwa kilomita elfu kadhaa, kwa mfano kutoka Siberia - Urusi hadi Ulaya ya Magharibi, au kutoka Alaska hadi Marekani Bara.

Njia hizo zina uwezo wa kusafirisha viwango vikubwa; mfano ni njia ya bomba la gesi la Omani lenye kipenyo cha sentimita 81 inayopeleka kila siku mita za ujazo milioni 22.8 kwa umbali wa kilomita 300. Njia ya bomba la mafuta lenye kipenyo cha sentimita 71 kutoka bandari ya Wilhelmshaven Ujerumani inasafirisha tani milioni 15.5 kwa mwaka.

                                     

3. Viungo vya Nje

  • "Submarine Gas Pipe Line Taps Undersea Wealth" November 1951 article about first undersea gas pipeline constructed in the US and the problems encountered
  • "The Marvels Of Underground Oil Railroads" Popular Science April 1937
  • Construction and delivery of compressor stations for a gas pipeline in the Soviet Union by AEG company video from the 1970s with subtitles
  • Gas Pipeline Safety: Guidance and More Information Needed before Using Risk-Based Reassessment Intervals: Report to Congressional Committees Government Accountability Office
  • UK - Linewatch - a joint awareness initiative between 14 oil and gas pipeline operators
  • Pipeline Knowledge & Development 2011. History of Gas and Oil Pipelines., US historical summary
  • Pipeline news and industry magazine
  • Pipeline Politics in Asia: The Intersection of Demand, Energy Markets, and Supply Routes, by Mikkal E. Herberg et al. National Bureau of Asian Research, 2010
  • The Dolphin Project: The Development of a Gulf Gas Initiative, by Justin Dargin, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies Jan 2008 Working Paper NG #22